Pain is as much about sensitivity to movement and less about tissue damage. The right movement at the right time and reassurance is the key to treating pain. Reassurance can break the avoidance or fear of movement which can lock-in pain. Sometimes the injury can be over-sensitized due to complex interacting factors. The brain and spinal cord can maintain pain signals even when the original damage is gone. High quality physiotherapy research shows how pain can be perpetuated by psychological-social-lifestyle factors. These can prevent us from healing and restoring normal movement. By identifying these non-structural causes of pain, we can alleviate fear of movement and build up the tolerance and strength.